Amidst the recent hype surrounding
young British art, the pundits promoting this scam overlooked a number
of cultural forms that might have provided a more solid platform from which
to promote their rather dubious agenda. Early in 1997 the Norton Museum
of Art in Florida hosted a major exhibition entitled An Amazing Art: Contemporary
Labyrinths by Adrian Fisher. Portsmouth based Fisher has been designing
labyrinths for donkey's years and played a major role in organising The
Year of the Maze in 1991, a celebration of the 300th anniversary of Hampton
Court, the oldest surviving hedge maze in England.
Many new mazes were built as part
of the 1991 celebrations and Fisher bagged the prime spot in Blenheim Palace,
Oxfordshire. Blemheim occupies the site of the legendary Rosamund's Bower,
an architectural labyrinth with heavy defences in which Henry II is said
to have installed his mistress Fair Rosamund. According to the story propagated
by various popular ballads, when Queen Eleanor finally penetrated the maze
in 1176, she forced her rival to drink poison. Blenheim Palace replaced
the ruined medieval buildings in the eighteenth century and was given to
the First Duke of Marlborough in recognition of his many military victories.
The Marlborough family's other famous military scion, Winston Churchill,
was born at Blenheim in 1874.
Fisher based his Marlborough Maze
design on Grinling Gibbons' Blenheim Palace roof carvings depicting the
Panoply of Victory. Seen from above, the lines of yew hedges that make
up the labyrinth portray pyramids of cannonballs, a cannon firing, and
the air filled with banners, flags and bugles. The maze has entrances on
the left and right with a central exit. Two wooden bridges add an exciting
additional aspect to the puzzle element of the maze, while simultaneously
providing viewing points from which to survey the work. One of Fisher's
colour mazes can also be found at Blenheim. This labyrinth consists of
nodes connected by coloured paths, the choice of path at each node being
determined by the colour of the path previously taken.
Mums and dads stop on the bridges
of the main maze to view a piece of symbolism that makes Sarah Lucas look
subtle. Children race around the labyrinth enjoying the three dimensionality
of the work in the same way that they might relish Tracy Emin's Everyone
I Ever Slept With tent. The Marlborough Maze isn't difficult to solve,
the first time I went in it took about twelve minutes to get out again.
Alongside the aesthetic frisson of the mock pompous symbolism, the twists
and turns of the labyrinth cause the maze to echo with the noise of laughter
and wonderment. The crowds flocking to Blenheim are very different to the
audience attracted by young British art. On the surface those using the
labyrinth may appear less sophisticated than gallery groupies, but beneath
this superficial appearance their aesthetic tastes are actually far more
The institutional defeat of modernism
has resulted in an increasing assimilation of art into representational
categories of popular culture. The Marlborough Maze is a perfect example
of an art that does not have to justify such pleasures to its audience.
This has generated a certain amount of confusion in the interpretation
of Fisher's work and while his mazes have received coverage everywhere
from Scientific American to Der Spiegal , they are largely ignored by the
art press. Art critics generally view Fisher as politically conformist,
intellectually timid and an aesthetic revisionist. Such views are extremely
parochial since they are based on the surface appearances of Fisher's work
at the expense of the wider cultural context.
While young British art has been
justified as a demotically voiced assault on politically correct post-modernism,
the Marlborough Maze attacks something infinitely more sacrosanct. Woodstock
Park in which Blenheim Palace is situated was landscaped by Capability
Brown, whose naturalistic aesthetic resulted in the destruction of many
mazes and the formal gardens of which they constituted a part. Hampton
Court maze only survives today because Brown was told not to touch it.
This must have irritated the Royal Gardener, since he lived in the house
next to the maze for twenty years!
The Marlborough Maze is much more
than simply a slap in the face for aesthetically 'educated' taste or a
simple parody that sets ghosts walking. Despite Fisher's unqualified regard
for the voluptuous pleasures of popular culture, he does not seek to assimilate
himself to popular culture in fazed admiration, as if his only ambition
was an anti-intellectual release of libidinal energy. Rather, he treats
the aesthetically despised pleasures of maze making and walking as something
that is first nature and commonplace and mutually defining of subjectivity.
The labyrinth is a vibrant cultural form precisely because it has avoided
the aesthetic hype of the contemporary art market. As such, Fisher and
maze walking represent the future direction of visual culture.